The Morphology of Epiphany in Song 1 of Sappho


The epiphany of the goddess Aphrodite in Song 1 of Sappho may seem, from a modern perspective, paradoxical. On the one hand, if one considers epiphany to mean simply the appearance of a divinity, it is not difficult to identify the exact moment in which the song’s epiphany occurs; the arrival of the goddess Aphrodite in her sparrow-yoked chariot crystallizes in a single word: ἐξίκοντο (literally, ‘they arrived’). On the other hand, if one considers the presentation of the epiphany in Sappho 1, one could argue persuasively for a non-instantaneous appearance of the goddess; it is entirely defensible that this particular epiphany plays out gradually as an elision of the mindset of the goddess with that of the chorus. [1] For an example of this phenomenon, let us consider the fifth and sixth strophes of the song, in which we encounter the chorus speaking in the persona of Aphrodite: [2]

τίνα δηὖτε πείθω
ἄψ σ᾿ ἄγην ἐς ϝὰν φιλότατα; τίς σ᾿, ὦ
Ψάπφ᾿, ἀδικήει;

καὶ γὰρ αἰ φεύγει, ταχέως διώξει·
αἰ δὲ δῶρα μὴ δέκετ᾿, ἀλλὰ δώσει·
αἰ δὲ μὴ φίλει, ταχέως φιλήσει
κωὐκ ἐθέλοισα.

Whom once again this time am I to persuade
To lead you back to her love? Who, O Sappho,
Wrongs you?

For if she flees, soon she will pursue.
And if she does not receive gifts, soon she will give them.
And if she does not love, soon she will love
Even against her will.

Sappho 31.18–24

In these lines, it becomes plain that a transfer has taken place; the song began with a first person persona, performed by the chorus, addressing the goddess in the second person. Now, however, the chorus quotes the first person goddess addressing them as the second person persona. It is my contention that this fusion of the Sapphic chorus and the goddess Aphrodite exists not only at line 18 but throughout the first six stanzas of the song, and that it becomes increasingly apparent as these stanzas unfold. Through its prayer form and various elements of its language, from its particles to its placement of adverbs, Sappho 1 suggests a progressive melding of choral and divine perspectives.

In what follows, I hope to explain how these two manifestations of epiphany, one sudden and the other gradual, come to bear as textual realities. But I also hope to show how, from the perspective of the chorus, they are inextricably entwined, that is, how the mimetic nature of choral performance would have eliminated any distinction between them. When I use the adjective ‘mimetic’, or its noun form, ‘mimesis’, I invoke the sense that Aristotle expresses in his Poetics; μίμησις ‘reenactment’, he writes, can be summed up in the phrase οὗτος ἐκεῖνος, or “this one is that one”: a mixing of two things such that one becomes indistinguishable from the other. [3] With this concept in mind, we can assert that from a choral perspective, the mimetic nature of Sappho 1 obviates the polarity of the two types of epiphany outlined above; in the moment of re-enactment, the thing being reenacted and the reenactment itself become one and the same: “this thing” (οὗτος) becomes “that thing” (ἐκεῖνος).

The Prayer Form of Sappho 1

It seems fitting to address Sappho 1 first on the level of structure. I will endeavor to show that the song’s prayer form facilitates both the gradual epiphany apparent in the text and the mimesis that would have made such an epiphany imperceptible to the chorus performing it. From a textual perspective, Sappho 1 seems to adhere to the standard form of an Ancient Greek prayer, which Furley describes as comprised of three parts: epiklesis, eulogia, and eukhe (‘invocation’, ‘praise’, and ‘prayer’); in this song, the epiklesis consists of stanza one, the eulogia of stanzas 2 through 6 and the eukhe of stanza 7. [4] This form reflects the chorus’ progressive immersion in, and subsequent emergence from, the mindset of the goddess; the prayer begins with an entreaty of the goddess from afar; thereafter, it moves to a central component that is necessarily more proximal to the deity, one that deals with her specific attributes and actions; finally, it ends with another entreaty from afar. This tripartite structure—of distance, closeness, and distance again—is particularly prominent in Sappho 1, which, by virtue of its immersive epiphany, brings us very close to the goddess indeed.
Another way of thinking about prayer form, which addresses the textual concept of gradual epiphany as well as the performative concept of mimesis, presents itself in Leonard Muellner’s definition of prayer: “a prayer is a physical act of communication (in the etymological sense). It invokes a god, then it promises him a gift or reminds him of a past gift or calls attention to a present one; then, in return, it specifies a favor.” [5] We can see plainly that Sappho 1 fits Muellner’s definition of prayer, and that Muellner’s definition, like Furley’s, reflects the chorus’ emergence in and reemergence from the mindset of the goddess; it, too, features a tripartite structure of invocation, proximity to the deity, and invocation again. The chief difference between Furley’s and Muellner’s definitions of prayer is that Muellner’s is of a contractual nature; and this difference, in turn, implies temporal nuances that we do not find in Furley’s and that lead us back to the concept of mimesis. Prayer, according to Muellner, originates with an invocation, which, by necessity, takes place in the temporal base of the present; in the middle section of the prayer, the temporal base shifts to past time, in the event that the invoker calls attention to a past gift (as is the case in Sappho 1); in the final section, the temporal base shifts back to the present, although the invoker gestures towards the future by virtue of asking for a favor. For Muellner, then, prayer is a blurring of present, past, and future time that captures well the mimetic nature of choral performance, wherein such distinctions cease to exist.

Verbs and Temporality

I would like to turn now to a more micro-level examination of the textual phenomenon of gradual epiphany in Sappho 1; I aim to discuss how the chorus’ immersion in, and subsequent emergence from, the mindset of the goddess plays out in the song’s verb forms, and how, again, this phenomenon would not at all have been apparent in the moment of performance. Beginning on a textual level, the song starts off in the temporal base of present time with a typical prayer formulation: the verb λίσσομαι (literally, ‘I beg’) followed by two imperatives, μή … δάμνα and τυίδ᾿ ἔλθ᾿ (‘do not overpower’ and ‘come here’). So typical is this construction that one can find it in the Iliad at the point when Hector begs Achilles to spare his body:

λίσσομ᾿ ὑπὲρ ψυχῆς καὶ γούνων σῶν τε τοκήων,
μή με ἔα παρὰ νηυσὶ κύνας καταδάψαι Ἀχαιῶ.

I beg you by your soul and knees and your own parents,
do not let the dogs consume me by the ships of the Achaeans.

Iliad 22.338–339 (own translation)

Both the present tense of these verbs, as well as the formulaic nature of their construction, testify to the fact that the members of the chorus have not yet fully immersed themselves in the epiphany; they are still caught up in the here and now, propounding mimetically in the conventions of the form.

In the second stanza, however, the chorus begins to depart somewhat from this highly formulaic variety of recitation:

αἴ ποτα κἀτέρωτα
τὰς ἔμας αὔδας ἀίοισα πήλοι
ἔκλυες, πάτρος δὲ δόμον λίποισα
χρύσιον ἦλθες
ἄρμ᾿ ὐπασδεύξαισα.

Ιf ever in the past
You heard my voice from afar and gave in
And came, leaving the golden
House of your father,
You arrived in your chariot.

Sappho 31.9

Here, although the temporal base remains in the present, there appears an aorist verb, ἔκλυες, as well as a hypothetical construction, both of which suggest the chorus’ heightened remove from the here and now. It must be acknowledged, though, that the conditional construction itself is not atypical of prayer form; in fact, in his commentary on Sappho, David Campbell traces this type of conditional through four different works: the Iliad, Pindar’s sixth Isthmian Ode, Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannos, and Aristophanes’ Thesmophoriazusae. [6] An examination of Campbell’s Iliadic examples, the only ones in his litany that would have predated Sappho, however, reveal how very differently the formulation is treated in Song 1. The first example below is Diomedes’ prayer in Iliad 5 and the second Achilles’ prayer to Zeus in Iliad 16:

κλῦθί μευ, αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς τέκος, Ἀτρυτώνη,
εἴ ποτέ μοι καὶ πατρὶ φίλα φρονέουσα παρέστης
δηίῳ ἐν πολέμῳ, νῦν αὖτ᾿ ἐμὲ φῖλαι, Ἀθήνη.

Hear me, child of Agis-bearing Zeus, Atrytone,
If ever with a kindly mind you stood by my father’s side
In the fury of battle, so now love me again, Athene.

Iliad 5.115–117 (own translation)
Ζεῦ ἄνα, Δωδωναῖε, Πελασγικέ, τηλόθι ναίων,
Δωδώνης μεδέων δυσχειμέρου· ἀμφὶ δὲ Σελλοὶ
σοὶ ναίουσ᾿ ὑποφῆται ἀνιπτόποδες χαμαιεῦναι.
ἠμὲν δή ποτ᾿ ἐμὸν ἔπος ἔκλυες εὐξαμένοιο,
τίμησας μὲν ἐμέ, μέγα δ᾿ ἴψαο λαὸν Ἀχαιῶν,
ἠδ᾿ ἔτι καὶ νῦν μοι τόδ᾿ ἐπικρήηνον ἐέλδωρ.

Zeus, lord, Dodonaean, Pelasgian, dwelling afar,
ruling over wintry Dodona—about you live the Selli,
your interpreters, men with unwashed feet who sleep on the ground.
Just as when in the past you heard me when I prayed—
you honored me, and mightily struck the host of the Achaeans—
so now also fulfill this wish for me.

Iliad 16.233–238 (own translation)

Having read the Iliadic examples, one might expect the construction in Sappho 1 to follow the formula, “if you ever helped before, help again now.” However, in Sappho 1 the apodosis of this condition is delayed until the very last stanza of the song. Moreover, in between protasis and apodosis, the song features non-conditional constructions and even direct speech. Rather than arriving at the anticipated apodosis, Sappho loses the sense of the condition in the following indicative: κάλοι δέ σ᾿ ἆγον / ὤκεες στροῦθοι; shortly thereafter, the epiphany itself, ἐξίκοντo, occurs in the aorist and in a non-conditional construction.

Another curious feature of the gradual epiphany of song 1 of Sappho is that it does not cease after the literal appearance of the goddess, as indicated by the verb ἐξίκοντo, takes place; the verb forms continue to express a progressive fusion of the mindset of the chorus with that of the goddess. After the arrival of Aphrodite and her sparrows, the chorus brings itself closer still to the goddess by addressing her by the intimate pronoun σύ; and this pronoun, in turn, triggers a series of lines in free indirect discourse, signaling a departure from the temporal base of present time:

σὺ δ᾿, ὦ μάκαιρα,
μειδιαίσαισ᾿ ἀθανάτῳ προσώπῳ
ἤρε᾿ ὄττι δηὖτε πέπονθα κὤττι
δηὖτε κάλημμι,

κὤττι μοι μάλιστα θέλω γένεσθαι
μαινόλᾳ θύμῳ· τίνα δηὖτε πείθω
ἄψ σ᾿ ἄγην ἐς ϝὰν φιλότατα.

And you, O blessed one,
With a smile on your undying face,
Asked what I suffered once again this time and why
I called once again this time,

And what I most wished to happen
In my frenzied heart. “Whom once again this time am I to persuade
To lead you back to her love?”

Sappho 31.13–19

The re-enacted elision of the chorus and Aphrodite becomes more pronounced still when the former begins to speak in the voice of the latter, that is, when we encounter direct speech:

τίνα δηὖτε πείθω
ἄψ σ᾿ ἄγην ἐς ϝὰν φιλότατα; τίς σ᾿, ὦ
Ψάπφ᾿, ἀδικήει;

καὶ γὰρ αἰ φεύγει, ταχέως διώξει·
αἰ δὲ δῶρα μὴ δέκετ᾿, ἀλλὰ δώσει·
αἰ δὲ μὴ φίλει, ταχέως φιλήσει
κωὐκ ἐθέλοισα.

Whom once again this time am I to persuade
To lead you back to her love? Who, O Sappho,
Wrongs you?

For if she flees, soon she will pursue.
And if does not receive gifts, soon she will give them.
And if she does not love, soon she will love
Even against her will.

Sappho 31.18–24

We only arrive at the apodosis and return to the temporal base of present time in the last stanza with its forceful imperative: ἔλθε μοι καὶ νῦν (“come to me again now”).

Although it is possible, as I have demonstrated, to track carefully and by degrees the temporality of Sappho 1 and how it suggests the chorus’ immersion in that which they relate, this process would not have been apparent to the chorus members themselves, engaged as they were in a mimetic act. In fact, it is highly significant that ἔκλυες, the verb that, on a textual level, signals the chorus’ immersion epiphany, is in the aorist tense; aorist means, literally, ‘without bound’, and this etymology speaks to the inattention to demarcations, temporal or otherwise, which accompanies mimesis.

Particles and Adverbs

Now that we have touched on the topic of how verbs create a sense of gradual epiphany in the text, if not the performance, of Sappho 1, let us adjust our critical lens to focus on how particles and adverbs affect the same trend. As far as I can tell, the sequence of particles and adverbs in Song 1 of Sappho is as follows; first, we encounter ποτα in line 5 in the protasis of a conditional clause; next, we come across δηὖτε in line 15, repeated in lines 16 and 18, then ταχέως in lines 21 and 23, and finally νῦν in line 25. From this progression, we can see that stanzas two through six revolve around the axis created by the particles ποτα and νῦν, the former lodged in past time, unaccented and indefinite, and the latter accented and close at hand. A glance at the instances in which these temporal markers occur in Sappho’s other songs reveals that they often create a temporal distinction between psychological states. In a study of the Thalia and Tithonos poems, both of which contain a preponderance of these markers, Eva Stehle concludes that pota usually occurs when Sappho describes an “imaginary time of mythic, erotic plenitude,” and that nun usually occurs in “… speech that, among other things, looks forward to the heroization of the poet.” [7] Although I do not think that the second component of Stehle’s argument applies to Song 1 of Sappho, I certainly agree that pota, in this context, launches the chorus into a meditation on an erotic wish, and that nun signals a return to the here and now. [8]
The axis created by these two particles is complicated by the intervening adverbs δηὖτε and ταχέως, both of which erode, in a mimetic fashion, the distinction between past and present. The adverb δηὖτε accomplishes this by implying a systematically iterative phenomenon that Nagy explains as follows: “dēute (δηὖτε),” he writes, “as used at lines 15 and 16 and 18 in Song 1 of Sappho refers not only to some episodically recurrent emotion of love as experienced by the speaker but also to the seasonally recurrent performance of the song on festive occasions that I reconstruct back to the earliest attested phases of the song’s evolution.” [9] In other words, Nagy’s interpretation of δηὖτε as signaling a seasonally recurring event confers an aura of timelessness on the central section of the poem and exemplifies the mimetic nature of the chorus’ performance.
The adverb ταχέως, literally ‘soon’, eradicates temporal demarcations in a similar way; although uttered in the temporal base of past time, this word refers to a moment posterior even to the moment of recitation. To explain why I think this, it seems fitting to bring up an argument by J. C. B. Petropoulos that Nagy addresses in the same paper. [10] In essence, Petropoulos argues that the agent of an Ancient Greek love spell would try to force the beloved to reciprocate his or her own feelings by using language similar to that in Sappho 1. [11] If we accept the similarities that Petropoulos identifies, which include the use of adverbs such as ταχέως in both love spells and Sappho 1, the sixth strophe of this song refers performatively to a time after the moment of recitation in which the beloved comes to his or her senses and returns the affections of the love-stricken. [12] This adverb, then, elides the boundaries between past, present, and future that the words νῦν and ποτα imply.

Comparandum and Conclusion

Having shown, I hope, how the re-enacted elision of the mindset of the goddess with that of the chorus plays out in the text of Sappho 1, I propose to highlight another well-known instance of epiphany: the appearance of the same goddess Athena to Nausicaa at the outset of Odyssey Book VI. I have included below the relevant lines:

ἡ δ᾿ ἀνέμου ὡς πνοιὴ ἐπέσσυτο δέμνια κούρης,
στῆ δ᾿ ἄρ᾿ ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς, καί μιν πρὸς μῦθον
ἔειπεν εἰδομένη κούρῃ ναυσικλειτοῖο Δύμαντος,
ἥ οἱ ὁμηλικίη μὲν ἔην, κεχάριστο δὲ θυμῷ.
τῇ μιν ἐεισαμένη προσέφη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη
‘Ναυσικάα, τί νύ σ᾿ ὧδε μεθήμονα γείνατο μήτηρ;
εἵματα μέν τοι κεῖται ἀκηδέα σιγαλόεντα,
σοὶ δὲ γάμος σχεδόν ἐστιν ἵνα χρὴ καλὰ μὲν αὐτὴν
ἕννυσθαι, τὰ δὲ τοῖσι παρασχεῖν οἵ κέ σ᾿ ἄγωνται.
ἐκ γάρ τοι τούτων φάτις ἀνθρώπους ἀναβαίνει
ἐσθλή, χαίρουσιν δὲ πατὴρ καὶ πότνια μήτηρ.
ἀλλ᾿ ἴομεν πλυνέουσαι ἅμ᾿ ἠοῖ φαινομένηφι·
καί τοι ἐγὼ συνέριθος ἅμ᾿ ἕψομαι, ὄφρα τάχιστα
ἐντύνεαι, ἐπεὶ οὔ τοι ἔτι δὴν παρθένος ἔσσεαι·
ἤδη γάρ σε μνῶνται ἀριστῆες κατὰ δῆμον
πάντων Φαιήκων, ὅθι τοι γένος ἐστὶ καὶ αὐτῇ.
ἀλλ᾿ ἄγ᾿ ἐπότρυνον πατέρα κλυτὸν ἠῶθι πρὸ
ἡμιόνους καὶ ἄμαξαν ἐφοπλίσαι, ἥ κεν ἄγῃσι
ζῶστρά τε καὶ πέπλους καὶ ῥήγεα σιγαλόεντα.
καὶ δὲ σοὶ ὧδ᾿ αὐτῇ πολὺ κάλλιον ἠὲ πόδεσσιν
ἔρχεσθαι· πολλὸν γὰρ ἀπὸ πλυνοί εἰσι πόληος.’
And like a gust of air the goddess hurried to the couch of the maiden and stood above her head and spoke to her, taking the form of the daughter of Dymas, famous for his ships, a girl who was of like age with Nausicaa and was dear to her heart. Having likened herself to her, flashing-eyed Athena spoke: ‘Nausicaa, how is it now that your mother gave birth to you so careless? Your shining clothing lies uncared for, and yet your marriage is very soon, when you will need not only to be clothed in such garments, but to provide others like them to those who escort you. It is from these things, you know, that good report arises among men and that your father and queenly mother rejoice. But let us go and wash them when dawn appears. And I will go with you to wash them so that you may make yourself ready as quickly as possible, since you will not be a maiden for long. For you already have suitors, the best of all the Phaeacians in the land, where your own lineage is also. But come, rouse your father at dawn to make ready mules and a wagon to carry the girdles, robes and shining coverlets. And it is better for you, too, to go this way than on foot, since the washing tubs are far from the city.
Odyssey 6.20–40 (own translation)

There are many striking similarities between this episode and Song 1 of Sappho; on the most obvious level, both feature the epiphany of a goddess, and on a somewhat less apparent level, both present goddesses who undergo transformations; in Sappho 1, Aphrodite fuses with the chorus invoking her, and in the Nausicaa passage, Athena takes the form of the daughter of Dymas (εἰδομένη κούρῃ ναυσικλειτοῖο Δύμαντος). In other words, both passages are mimetic; the chorus of Sappho 1 re-enacts the appearance of Aphrodite, just as the daughter of Dymas, in a sense, re-enacts the appearance of Athena. It is precisely because these similarities are so striking that they illuminate the ways in which the Nausicaa epiphany differs from the epiphany of Song 1 of Sappho. In Nausicaa’s dream, we encounter an epiphany that is clearly demarcated; the goddess appears in the phrase στῆ δ᾿ ἄρ᾿ ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς (“she stood over her head”) and departs in the phrase ὣς εἰποῦσ᾿ ἀπέβη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη (“so speaking flashing-eyed Athena left”). Moreover, there is, in the Nausicaa episode, no gradual elision of the persona of the goddess with that of Nausicaa; certainly a physical and mental union transpires when Athena becomes like the daughter of Dymas, but this transformation occurs in a single moment. The clearly defined, instantaneous nature of the epiphany in the Nausicaa episode, then, throws into relief the gradual, mimetic nature of that in Sappho 1.

Works Cited

Campbell, David. 1982a. Greek Lyric Poetry. Bristol.
———. 1982b. Greek Lyric, Volume 1: Sappho, Alcaeus. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge MA.
Furley, William. 2001. Greek Hymns: Selected Cult Songs from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Period. Tübingen.
Muellner, Leonard. 1976. The Meaning of Homeric εὔχομαι Through Its Formulas. Innsbruck. Online edition accessed December 8, 2016.
Murray, A. T. 1919. Homer. Odyssey, rev. William F. Wyatt. 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge MA.
———. 1924–1925. Homer. Iliad, rev. William F. Wyatt. 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge MA.
Nagy, Gregory. 2015a. “Homo Ludens in the World of Ancient Greek Verbal Art.” Classical Inquiries. Accessed December 3, 2016,
———. 2015b. “Once Again This Time in Song 1 of Sappho.” Classical Inquiries. Accessed December 5, 2016,
Petropoulos, J. C. B. 1993. “Sappho the Sorceress: Another Look at fr. 1 (LP).” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 97:43–56.
Stehle, Eva. 2011. “‘Once’ and ‘Now’: Temporal Markers and Sappho’s Self-Representation.” In Classics@ 4, ed. Ellen Greene and Marilyn Skinner. Online edition accessed December 5, 2016.


[ back ] 1. Throughout this paper, I refrain from using the word ‘speaker’; in the first place, it is a textual term and in the second, it suggests that this song is monadic. I use the word ‘chorus’ instead because this song would have been performed by a group of people led by a choral leader, or khoregos. The mimetic flow of the song (which I will discuss later in this paper) and the various syntactical irregularities that it entails suggest a choral performance; if the song were performed by a group there would not have been an audience for whom rational syntactical structures would have been necessary.
[ back ] 2. This Greek text, and all following Sappho text in Greek, comes from the Loeb Classical Library text of Campbell 1982b. All translations are my own.
[ back ] 3. Aristotle, Poetics, 1448b17. Although in the Poetics Aristotle refers explicitly only to the visual arts, it becomes clear that he is contemplating the verbal art of poetry as well if we turn our attention to a passage in his Rhetoric (1.1371b4–10). Here, he discusses painting, sculpture and poetry (γραφικὴ καὶ ἀνδριαντοποιία καὶ ποιητική) and defines mimesis in an almost exactly the same way: τοῦτο ἐκεῖνο (“this thing is that thing”). I follow Nagy (2015a) in glossing the word μίμησις as ‘reenactment’.  On his choice of this gloss, Nagy writes (§13): “When I use the word mīmēsis, I understand the primary meaning of the original Greek word to be ‘reenactment’, as in a chorus. What I mean by a reenactment is a reliving through ritual. And I understand the secondary meaning of mīmēsis to be ‘imitation’. I say secondary because I understand imitation to be a built-in aspect of reenactment. All reenactment is imitation, but not all imitation is reenactment …”
[ back ] 4. Furley 2001:51.
[ back ] 5. Muellner 1976 §II.B.1.b.
[ back ] 6. Campbell (1982a, 264–265) cites Homer Iliad 5.116ff., 16.233ff., Pindar Isthmian 6.42ff., Sophocles Oedipus Tyrannos 163ff. and Aristophanes Thesmophoriazusae 1156ff. as examples of this construction.
[ back ] 7. Stehle 2011.
[ back ] 8. Incidentally, the lack of temporal specificity associated with the word pota accords with the concept of mimesis in much the same way as the aorist tense does; it evokes the unboundedness implied by the phrase οὗτος ἐκεῖνος.
[ back ] 9. Nagy 2015b §1.
[ back ] 10. Nagy 2015b §§12–16.
[ back ] 11. Petropoulos 1993.
[ back ] 12. In one striking example preserved in a lead tablet form Hermopoulis Magna, a woman tries to capture the heart of another woman by casting a love spell. Nagy writes of the language used in this spell: “the ritualized haste that we see at work here in the insistent repetition ἄρτι ἄρτι, ταχὺ ταχύ ‘now, now, quick, quick’ is comparable to the wording of Aphrodite as she responds to the prayer of Sappho about the unresponsive girl.” In other words, it is apparent that the repetition of ταχὺ ταχύ is quite similar to the adverb ταχέως in Sappho 1. See Nagy 2015b §§12–13.